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王毅在歐洲政策中心舉辦的歐洲智庫媒體交流會上的演講(1)(中英對照)

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Enhancing Mutual Trust and Cooperation to Embrace an Even Better Future of China-EU Relations

增進互信,深化合作,迎接中歐關系更加美好的明天
– Speech at the "Sixty-Minute Briefing" Event of the European Policy Center
——在歐洲政策中心舉辦的歐洲智庫媒體交流會上的演講
H.E. Wang Yi, State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China
國務委員兼外長 王毅
Brussels, 16 December 2019
2019年12月16日,布魯塞爾
President Herman Van Rompuy, Ladies and Gentlemen,
尊敬的范龍佩主席,女士們,先生們,
It gives me great pleasure to come back to Brussels, the heart of Europe, and share some thoughts with friends both old and new.
很高興再次來到歐洲的心臟布魯塞爾,同各位新老朋友進行交流。
The year 2019, which is drawing to a close, has been a productive year for China-EU relations. We concluded negotiations on the Geographical Indications (GI) agreement as scheduled, and signed two agreements on aviation cooperation. We made good progress in enhancing the complementarity between the Belt and Road Initiative and the EU's Strategy on Connecting Europe and Asia.
2019年即將過去。這一年,是中歐關系取得豐碩成果的一年。中歐按期完成地理標志協定談判,簽署兩份航空合作協定,“一帶一路”與歐亞互聯互通對接也在順利推進。
We reached extensive consensus on major issues from strengthening global governance, upholding multilateralism to defending free trade. Together, we delivered a clear message to the world that China and the EU are working together to uphold the international order and tackle global challenges.
雙方還就加強全球治理、堅持多邊主義、維護自由貿易等重大問題達成廣泛共識,向世界發出中歐共同維護國際秩序,應對全球挑戰的明確信號。
Following the official inauguration of the new EU leadership earlier this month, President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have had separate phone calls with President Charles Michel and President Ursula von der Leyen. The two sides agreed to further deepen China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership, signaling a smooth transition of China-EU relations.
本月初,新一屆歐盟機構正式就職,習近平主席、李克強總理已分別同米歇爾主席、馮德萊恩主席通電話,雙方同意繼續深化中歐全面戰略伙伴關系,中歐關系正在實現平穩過渡。
To ensure the steady progress of China-EU relations, we need to, first and foremost, get mutual perceptions right and keep enhancing mutual understanding and trust.
中歐關系要行穩致遠,首先應樹立正確的相互認知,不斷增進彼此理解與信任。
As far as China is concerned, our views of Europe have always been positive and constructive. We see Europe as an important cooperation partner and a priority on our diplomatic agenda. We believe that Europe is an important pole in this multi-polar world, and a prosperous and stable Europe is a contributor to the development and progress of humankind. Proceeding from such a perception, China has been firm and steadfast in supporting European integration, supporting a united and strong European Union and supporting a bigger role for Europe in international affairs. As for Europe, over the years, European countries and the EU as an organization have by and large followed a positive China policy, and worked with China to promote cooperation in all fields. That said, to be candid, there have also been divergent views about China in Europe, which are mainly reflected in the following three questions. Failure to address these perception issues may cause unnecessary disruptions to the future of China-EU relations.
就中方而言,我們始終以積極和正面心態看待歐洲,把歐洲視為中國的重要合作伙伴和中國外交的優先方向之一,我們一直認為歐洲是世界多極化的重要一極,歐洲的繁榮穩定有利于人類整體的發展進步,為此始終堅定支持歐洲一體化進程,堅定支持歐盟團結壯大,堅定支持歐洲在國際事務中發揮更大作用。就歐方而言,這些年來歐洲各國以及歐盟總體上也奉行積極對華政策,與中方相向而行,推動中歐各領域合作不斷深入發展。當然,毋庸諱言,目前歐洲對中國也出現了一些不同看法,主要集中在三個問題,不解決好相互認知,有可能對中歐關系今后的發展造成不必要干擾。
Question No. 1: Is China a developing or developed country?
第一,中國到底是發展中國家還是發達國家?
In recent years, due to the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, some friends in Europe tend to see China as already joining the ranks of developed countries and they started to judge China by the corresponding standards. Some even go so far as to demand reciprocity at every turn. Let me draw an analogy with a 100-meter race. An early starter, who is already 50 meters ahead, asks to have a fair race with his fellow contestant, who is still standing at the starting line. Apparently, such a demand does not make any sense. Naturally, if it's in a much longer marathon, then the late-comer may stand a chance of catching up by running really fast.
近年來,隨著中國經濟快速發展,有些歐洲朋友認為,中國已經是一個發達國家了,開始用發達國家的標準來審視中國,甚至提出要事事“對等”。但就像一場百米賽,一方已跑出50米,卻要求與剛剛起跑的選手對等,這顯然并不合理。當然,如果是場馬拉松,能有更多時間給后發的選手,相信只要努力,仍有可能后來居上。
Let me draw your attention to some facts. China indeed remains a developing country. Although China is now the second largest economy in the world, our per capita GDP is only one sixth that of the US, and one fourth that of the EU. China ranks below the 80th place in the Human Development Index, and lags far behind developed countries in science, technology and education. Unbalanced and inadequate development remains a prominent challenge for China, and industrialization is yet to be completed. Therefore, it would be "irreciprocal" in effect to ask for reciprocity between a country that has been developing for only several decades and countries that have developed for centuries.
我要告訴大家的是,中國確實仍然是一個發展中國家。盡管經濟總量已達世界第二,但人均GDP僅為美國的1/6、歐盟的1/4,人類發展指數也排在世界80位以后,科技教育水平與發達國家還有明顯差距,發展不平衡、不充分問題依然突出,工業化進程尚未完成。因此,無論從哪方面來說,要求一個剛發展幾十年的國家同發展了幾百年的國家“對等”,這本身就是一種“不對等”。
In this connection, allow me to quote from an ancient Chinese poem, "It's a mountain range viewed in face and peaks viewed from one side, assuming different shapes viewed from far and wide." This poetical line essentially means that things observed from different angles will lead to different conclusions. When an objective perspective of developing countries is applied, what we will see is an impressive picture of China's achievements.
中國有句古詩:“橫看成嶺側成峰,遠近高低各不同”。意思是從不同角度觀察事物,會得出不同的結論。如果我們以實事求是態度,從發展中國家的角度看中國的話,將呈現出一幅極為亮麗的風景。
China has not only achieved tremendous progress in its own development, but also made far bigger contributions to the world than many other countries. Take the economy as an example, China has contributed more than 30 per cent to global growth for over ten consecutive years, serving as the leading engine of the world economy.
中國不僅在自身發展上取得巨大成就,而且為世界作出了遠超其他國家的貢獻。比如在增長方面,中國對全球經濟增長的貢獻率連續10多年保持30%以上,成為世界經濟增長主要動力源。
In terms of opening up, China has more than fulfilled its WTO commitments, and reduced the average tariff rate to 7.5 per cent, exceeding all other major developing countries and approaching the level of developed countries. On the ease of doing business, China's position in the World Bank rankings has jumped to the 31st place, up by 47 spots in the past two years, making it the best-performing economy in the improvement of its business environment. On emission reduction and environmental protection, China has contributed over 25 per cent to the increase in the world's afforested area in the past 20 years. In 2018, China reduced its carbon intensity by 45.8 per cent over the 2005 level, meeting its international commitments ahead of schedule.
開放方面,中國已超額完成加入WTO時的各項承諾,平均關稅降至7.5%,超過所有發展中大國,正在接近發達國家水平;營商環境方面,在世界銀行發布的排名中,中國在過去兩年快速提升了47位,前進至第31位,成為世界上改善幅度最大的經濟體。減排環保方面,過去20年中國植被增加量占全球25%以上,2018年中國碳排放強度比2005年下降45.8%,提前實現對國際社會的承諾目標。
On international cooperation, China is now the second largest contributor to the UN's regular budget and peacekeeping assessment and the largest contributor of peacekeepers among the five permanent members of the Security Council.
國際合作方面,中國已成為聯合國第二大會費國和維和攤款國,是安理會五大常任理事國中派出維和人員最多的國家。
Why shouldn't such a major developing country, one that is growing with strong momentum and making increasingly greater contributions to human progress, be welcomed and appreciated by Europe and the international community?
這樣一個蒸蒸日上,并且為人類發展進步做出越來越大貢獻的發展中大國,難道不應當得到歐洲以及國際社會的歡迎和肯定嗎?
Question No. 2: Is China a partner or a rival?
第二,中國到底是合作伙伴還是競爭對手?
In recent years, we have heard an argument suggesting that China has become a rival of Europe in the economic field and should be subjected to all sorts of restrictions. Although not the mainstream view, we must raise our vigilance and not allow it to go unchecked. In fact, any cool-headed person with an objective view will see that, for China and the EU, cooperation far outweighs competition, and our areas of consensus far exceed differences. We are partners, not rivals.
近年來,我們聽到一種觀點,認為中國在經濟上已經成為歐洲的競爭對手,主張對中國進行各種設限。盡管這種觀點并非主流,但應當引起我們的警惕,不能任其發酵蔓延。事實上,任何客觀和理性的人都會看到,中歐之間合作遠大于競爭,共識遠大于分歧,我們是伙伴,但不是對手。
Over the years, Europe has benefited tremendously from cooperation with China. Between 2001 and 2018, the EU's exports to China grew by 14.7 per cent on average each year, more than twice the EU's average export growth, supporting about four million local jobs. Investment of Chinese companies in the EU has also been growing. As of the end of 2017, Chinese companies have set up over 2,900 ventures in EU countries through direct investment, creating 176,000 jobs for the local people. Acquisition of Volvo by China's automaker Geely injected new energy to the Volvo factory in Ghent, Belgium, retaining and creating over 6,000 jobs. China is now the most profitable market for European companies. As many as 7 million cars, or nearly a quarter of all automobiles sold in China, are produced by European auto-makers.
多年來,歐洲在同中國合作中獲得了巨大利益。2001年至2018年,歐盟對華出口年均增速達14.7%,是平均增速的2倍多,支撐了約400萬就業崗位。中國企業對歐投資也不斷增加,截止2017年底已在歐盟設立直接投資企業2900多家,為當地創造17.6萬個就業崗位。中國吉利汽車收購沃爾沃汽車,使比利時根特市的工廠重獲生機,保留和創造了6000多個就業崗位。中國現在已經是歐洲企業在全球最獲利市場,歐洲企業在華生產的汽車數量占中國汽車銷售總量近1/4,達到700萬臺。
Even with rising trade friction between China and the US and mounting downward pressure on the global economy, economic and trade cooperation between China and the EU has bucked the trend and kept growing. In the first 11 months of this year, trade between China and the EU was estimated to grow by 7.7 per cent from last year. From January to July, EU investment in China was up by 18.3 per cent year on year. Sixty percent of EU companies regard China as a leading destination of investment.
在中美貿易摩擦加劇、全球經濟下行壓力加大背景下,中歐經貿合作逆勢而上,據統計,今年1-11月,中歐貿易額同比增長7.7%。1至7月,歐盟對華投資同比增長18.3%,60%的歐盟企業將中國視為主要投資目的地。
I would also like to underscore today that even with various factors at play, China, as a major developing country with 1.4 billion people, a 900-million-strong labor force and 120 million market entities, has solid internal growth momentum, great resilience and enormous economic potential. China is bound to offer a new round of cooperation opportunities and share the development dividend with countries in Europe.
我還要告訴大家的是,盡管受到各種因素影響,但作為一個擁有14億人口、9億勞動力資源、1.2億市場主體的發展中大國,中國經濟的內生動力、強大韌性和巨大潛力,必將為歐洲各國提供新一輪合作機遇和發展紅利。
In its cooperation with Europe, China has always respected Europe's concerns. Take China-CEEC cooperation. We advocate the idea of openness, transparency and inclusiveness and uphold the principle of equality, mutual benefit and win-win results. Such cooperation follows market rules and EU standards and contributes to the unity and stability of the EU as a whole. It has been shown time and again that mutually beneficial cooperation between China and CEE countries is a useful supplement to China-EU relations and conducive to balanced development and the integration process in Europe.
在同歐洲合作中,中方始終尊重歐洲的關切。比如中國同中東歐的合作,我們一直倡導開放透明包容理念,堅持平等互利共贏原則,遵守市場規則和歐盟標準,維護歐盟的整體團結和穩定。大量事實證明,中國同中東歐國家的互利合作是對中國同歐盟關系的有益補充,也有助于歐洲的均衡發展和一體化進程。
Question No. 3: Is China a friend for harmonious coexistence or a threat in a zero-sum game?
第三,中國到底是和諧共處的朋友還是非此即彼的威脅?
China and the EU do have different social systems, development paths, values and concepts. Yet such differences should not become obstacles in our exchanges and cooperation. Still less should they justify taking the other as a threat, interfering in others' affairs or even seeking to remold others in one's own image. As a well-known saying in Europe goes, "All roads lead to Rome." Confucius said something similar 2,500 years ago, "All living things should grow in harmony without hurting one another; and all the ways should move forward without interfering with one another." The world we live in is a diverse and colorful place. Every country is entitled to choose a development path tailored to their own national conditions.
在社會制度、發展道路、價值觀念等方面,中歐之間的確存在差異。但這些差異不應成為交流合作的障礙,更不能因此就把對方視作威脅,甚至試圖干涉和改變對方。歐洲有一句世界聞名的諺語:“條條大路通羅馬”。中國2500年前的孔子就告誡世人,“萬物并育而不相害,道并行而不相悖”。世界本來就是豐富多彩的,每個國家都有權選擇適合自身國情的發展路徑。
China respects Europe and appreciates your achievements. We never interfere in Europe's internal affairs. Likewise, we hope Europe will also respect China and appreciate the choices made by the Chinese people. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of New China. In the past several decades, we have completed a journey that took developed countries one hundred years or even centuries to accomplish. We have made it because we have found a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. It is a path to development, to success, to peace and to win-win results. While accelerating our own development, we have also contributed to the common development of our cooperation partners. As President Herman Van Rompuy aptly put it, "Direction is more important than speed." Since the direction is right, why should China change course? Since it serves everyone's interests, why should China be remolded?
中國始終尊重歐洲,欣賞歐洲,從不干涉歐洲內部事務。同樣,希望歐洲也能尊重中國,欣賞中國人民自己作出的選擇。今年是新中國成立70周年,我們用幾十年時間走完了發達國家上百年的歷程,因為我們找到了一條在中國共產黨領導下的中國特色社會主義道路。這條道路不僅是一條發展的道路,成功的道路,也是一條和平的道路,共贏的道路。我們在加快自身發展的同時,也實現了合作伙伴的共同發展。范龍佩主席有句名言,“方向比速度更重要”。既然方向是正確的,中國為什么要改變?既然對各方都是有利的,為什么要改變中國?
Take human rights as another example. It is the people of a country that have the biggest say in the quality of human rights there. The true value of the universality of human rights can only be realized when it is applied in the context of specific needs of different countries. Over the past seven decades since the founding of New China, our country has made historic progress in its human rights cause. We have lifted 850 million people out of poverty, contributing over 70 per cent to global progress in poverty reduction, and attained Goal One in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ten years ahead of schedule. Next year, for the first time in history, China will eradicate absolute poverty throughout the country.
再比如人權。一個國家的人權好不好,本國人民最有發言權。人權的普遍性要同各國的具體要求結合起來,才能體現其真正價值。新中國成立70年來,中國的人權事業取得了歷史性進步。我們減少了8.5億貧困人口,對全球減貧貢獻率超過70%,提前10年完成聯合國2030年可持續發展議程的首要目標,明年中國將在歷史上第一次徹底消除絕對貧困。
China has provided jobs for 770 million of its people. It has met the basic needs of 250 million elderly people, 85 million people with disabilities and over 60 million urban and rural residents living on subsistence allowance. In this process, China has built the world's biggest systems of education, social security, medical care and institutions of democracy at the primary level. In China, there are 850 million Internet users and over one billion users of the new media. Every Chinese enjoys freedom of speech as provided for by the Constitution. According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, in 2019, China tops the global rankings in the level of satisfaction with government performance, with over 86 per cent of the Chinese surveyed expressing satisfaction, way above the global median of 47 per cent.
中國為7.7億人提供就業,為2.5億老年人、8500萬殘疾人和6000多萬城鄉低保人口提供基本保障,建成了世界上最大規模的教育體系、最大規模的社保體系、最大規模的醫療體系、最大規模的基層民主體系。中國擁有8.5億網民和超過10億的新媒體用戶,每個人都享受著憲法保障的充分言論自由。美國皮尤中心的民調顯示,2019年度中國民眾對政府的滿意度超過86%,為全球最高,遠高于世界平均水平的47%。

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